Reducing CO2-emissions From Aviation – Strategy.

Montréal, 6 October 2016 – Government, industry and civil society representatives have agreed today on a new global market-based measure (GMBM) to control CO2-emissions from international aviation.

The historic move came as the Plenary Session of the UN aviation agency’s 39th Assembly agreed to recommend adoption of a final Resolution text for the GMBM.

WHAT CAN BE THE STRATEGY FOR AIRCRAFT OPERATORS WHEN IN 2020 ALL AIRCRAFT OPERATORS GET A CO2-EMMISSIONS ALLOWANCES QUOTA.
ACCORDING TO THE ICAO ASSEMBLY RESOLUTION AN AVERAGE LEVEL OF CO2-EMMISSIONS FROM INTERNATIONAL AVIATION COVERED BY THE SCHEME BETWEEN 2019 AND 2020 REPRESENTS THE BASIS FOR CARBON NEUTRAL GROWTH FROM 2020, AGAINST WHICH CO2-EMMISSIONS IN FUTURE YEARS ARE COMPARED IN ANY YEAR FROM 2021 WHEN INTERNATIONAL AVIATION CO2-EMMISSIONS COVERED BY THE SCHEME EXCEED THE AVARAGE BASELINE EMISSIONS OF 2019 AND 2020, THIS DIFFERENCE REPRESENTS THE SECTOR’S OFFSETTING REQUIREMENTS FOR THAT YEAR.THE CO2-EMMISSIONS IS CALCULATED BY EU EMMISSIONS TRADING DIRECTIVE BASED ON THE TOTAL USE OF THE CONVENTINAL JET A-1 FUEL. THEY CONTROL ALSO HOW MUCH ARE THE CO2-EMMISSIONS WHEN THE AIRPLANES FLY ON BIO-KEROSENE. WHICH BLEND THEY USE FOR EXAMPLE: WITH A BLEND OF 50% CONVENTIONAL JET-FUEL AND 50% JATROPHA BIOSYNTHETIC FUEL OR WITH A BLEND OF 80% CONVENTIONAL JET-FUEL AND 20% ALCOHOL FUEL. THERE ARE BIG DIFFERENCES IN THESE TWO CO2-EMMISSIONS.

www.icao.int/environmental-protection

www.ec.europa.eu/clima/policies/transport/aviation

THE AIRCRAFT OPERATORS HAVE THE CHOICE:
A) EVERY YEAR FEWER FLIGHTS,
B) BUYING CO2-EMISSIONS ON THE CARBON MARKET,
C) PAYING A HUGE FINE FOR INSUFFICIENT REDUCTION OF CO2-EMISSIONS,
D) FLYING ON A 50-50 BLEND OF CONVENTIONAL JET A-1 FUEL AND JATROPHA BIOSYNTHETIC FUEL.

ICAO’s Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation (CORSIA) is designed to complement the basket of mitigation measures the air transport community is already pursuing to reduce CO2-emissions from international aviation. These include technical and operational improvements and advances in the production and use of sustainable alternative fuels for aviation.

The European Commission welcomes the landmark agreement reached by the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO), with the adoption of a Global Market-Based Measure (GMBM) to reduce international aviation emissions. The European Union and its Member States played an instrumental role in brokering this deal, which constitutes the first-ever agreement to reduce CO2-emissions in a global sector. Days after the ratification of the Paris Agreement by the EU, this new multilateral deal shows that the EU is committed to keep global warming well below 2°C. It is also a key deliverable under the European Strategy for low-emission mobility recently adopted by the Commission.

Reducing emissions from aviation.
Aviation is one of the fastest-growing sources of greenhouse gas emissions. The EU is taking action to reduce aviation emissions in Europe and working with the international community to develop measures with global reach.

Someone flying from London to New York and back generates roughly the same level of emissions as the average person in the EU does by heating their home for a whole year.

Direct emissions from aviation account for about 3% of the EU’s total greenhouse gas emissions. The large majority of these emissions comes from international flights.

By 2020, global international aviation emissions are projected to be around 70% higher than in 2005 even if fuel efficiency improves by 2% per year. The ICAO forecasts that by 2050 they could grow by a further 300-700%.

Under the amended law, the Commission will report to the European Parliament and Council on the outcome of the 2016 ICAO Assembly and propose measures as appropriate to take international developments into account with effect from 2017.

Earlier this year the European Commission launched a public consultation on market-based measures to reduce the climate change impact from international aviation. The consultation sought input on questions concerning the policy options currently being developed at ICAO and in relation to the EU ETS. In total, 85 citizens and organisations responded to the consultation and the contributions have been published on our public consultation website.

Market-based measures are most cost-efficient approach.

The Commission proposed to include aviation in the EU ETS after concluding that this was the most cost-efficient and environmentally effective option for controlling aviation emissions. Its decision was based on a wide-ranging stakeholder and public consultation and analysis of several types of market-based solutions.

Compared with alternatives such as a fuel tax, including aviation in the EU ETS provides the same environmental benefit at a lower cost to society – or a higher environmental benefit for the same cost.

In addition to market-based measures, operational measures– such as modernising and improving air traffic management technologies, procedures and systems – also contribute to reducing aviation emissions.

Compatible with international law.

The EU’s 2008 legislation on aviation emissions is compatible with international law. This was confirmed by the European Court of Justice on 21 December 2011 in a legal case brought by some US airlines and their trade association against the inclusion of aviation in the EU ETS.

The Court stated that:

the extension of the EU ETS to aviation infringes neither the principle of territoriality, nor the sovereignty of third countries;

the EU ETS does not constitute a tax, fee or charge on fuel, which could be in breach of the EU-US Air Transport Agreement;

the uniform application of the EU ETS to European and non-European airlines alike is consistent with provisions in the EU-US Air Transport Agreement prohibiting discriminatory treatment between aircraft operators on nationality grounds.

Most attention at the ICAO Assembly was focused on emissions trading, in other words, compensating for CO2-emissions. An integrated limitation of CO2-emissions is just as important. Think, for instance, of the deployment of new aircraft, sustainable biofuel, more efficient use of airspace and optimising flight operations.

‘Does carbon trading really work?’
youtu.be/oKQ8GW6iblQ

The whole aviation world is looking for feedstock for the production of bio-kerosene. But till yet no one has the solution: www.greenaironline.com/news.php?NewsSectionId=77  
Also important is which feedstock has the most CO2-reductions.

TILL YET ONLY LUFTHANSA HAS PROVED THAT THE LARGEST REDUCTION OF CO2-EMMISIONS IS BY FLYING WITH A 50-50 BLEND OF CONVENTIONAL JET A-1 FUEL AND JATROPHA BIOSYNTHETIC FUEL.

For more information:
www.jatropha-bio-fuel.com/lufthansa-six-month-biofuel-trial-flights

The aircraft operators have to realize that they are responsible to take care for the feedstock to produce bio-kerosene and not the refineries when in 2020 all worldwide aircraft operators get the CO2-emissions allowances quota. Only aircraft operators who produce their own feedstock will make money. For the simple reason that they do NOT have to compete with other aircraft operators to become the feedstock. They have their own feedstock to produce bio-kerosene and don’t have to buy CO2-allowances on the carbon market. For example an aircraft operator who invest in the jatropha plantation in Brazil will become the production of the crude jatropha oil within 4 years. Than they have their own feedstock and can ask refineries to produce the bio-kerosene for them. When a refinery will invest in the jatropha plantation the aircraft operators have to compete with other aircraft operators and the aircraft operator who offers the best price will become the bio-kerosene. There will be a lack on the feedstock and the price will be also Sky High.

A CLEAR ROADMAP HOW THE TARGETED CO2-REDUCTIONS IN AVIATION  WILL BE REACHED IS NOT TO BE SEEN SO FAR AND CAN ONLY BE ARCHIEVED BY PARTIALLY FLYING ON BIO-KEROSENE.

What will be the best option for the aircraft operators depends on the costs, the availabilty and how many tonnes of CO2-emissions will be saved with the different blends of the feedstocks with respect to the conventional Jet A-1 fuel together with the extra costs for buying CO2-emissions allowances on the carbon market in 2020.

THE FEEDSTOCK MUST MEET THE NON-FOODCRISIS CRITERIA OF THE ROUNDTABLE ON SUSTAINABLE BIO-FUELS PRINCIPLE & CRITERIA.
www.rsb.org/sustainability/rsb-sustainability-standards

The costs flighing on a blend of 50/50% jatropha bio-kerosene and the conventional Jet A-1 fuel are 50% for the crude jatropha oil, 50% for the crude oil, + refining costs WITHOUT the costs for CO2-emissions allowances on the carbon market.

The cost of crude jatropha oil:

UNITE PRICE FOR THE DELIVERY:
U.S.Dollar 450,00 MT. F.O.B. from any seaport of loading in Brazil.
U.S.Dollar 50,00 MT. extra for the delivery with RSB principles & indicators for Jatropha Oil certificate.

These prices apply when the aircraft operators invest thereselves in a jatropha plantation in Brazil. They have over 30 years yields and are not dependent on the supply and demand of feedstock on the world market to produce the bio-kerosene.

When an aircraft operator has more tonnes CO2-reduction than the CO2-allowances quota, for reason that the operator frequent flying with a 50-50 blend of conventional Jet A-1 fuel and jatropha biosynthetic fuel, they can sell it on the carbon market for a much higher price than the production costs of the crude jatropha oil and so reduce the total fuel costs. About one ton of CO2-emissions will be saved relative to one ton 100% conventional Jet A-1 fuel.

We are convinced that it will be much more cheaper to invest in the production of jatropha oil instead of buying the conventional Jet A-1 fuel together with the extra costs for buying CO2-emissions allowances on the carbon market in 2020.

We offer aircraft operators the possibility to participate in the jatropha plantation in Brazil.

Brazil produce already the conventional Jet A-1 fuel and if there is sufficient production of the crude jatropha oil, aircraft operators can build together with other investors and oil companies a bio-kerosene refinery near the airports in Rio de Janeiro and Sâo Paulo. There are many flights from Europe and the U.S.A. to Brazil. They can make flights to Rio de Janeiro – Galeão Antonio Carlos Jobim International airport and São Paulo – Guarulhos International Airport with the conventional Jet A-1 kerosene. The return flights can be done with the 50-50 blend of  conventional Jet A-1 fuel and jatropha biosynthetic fuel. This is the most cheap way for aircraft operators to fly on bio-kerosene and for technical reason no problem.